This is a good question. Catholic education broadly put is education that is run by Catholic presuppositions. In other words, subjects are taught from a Catholic point of view. This would include things like a theistic view of the world, the sanctity of life as understood by the Bible and Catholic tradition, and the importance of the church in all spheres of life.
There will be overlap in may different areas of education as we must not pit religion and science against each other. This would be a false binary.
In my opinion, Catholic education can be excellent. For example, there are may excellent universities that espouse a Catholic point of view like Notre Dame and Fordham Universities.