There is much in way of information and thought to address this question. For me, I come back to Jung's model of learning as being critical to understanding how people grasp knowledge and understanding. Jung argued that there are different styles of learning which help to determine levels of success in the process of comprehension. In this breakdown of four distinct learners, Jung argues that there are different conditions in which learning can be maximized.
I believe that this model of learning helps to explain much about the process of understanding. Jung's model examines how learning can be seen differently. It also helps to explain why success in one domain only means a need to grow in the other realms. The model of learning that Jung argues and advocates is one in which individuals are not judged by one standard, but rather by multiple standards that demand different intelligences and approaches are used. In this configuration, learning is varied and divergent, one that shows that the trend of learning is far from being easily and reductively defined.