The ventral root (anterior) of the spinal nerve is the front part of the spinal nerve. It consists of axons from neurons while cell body of the neurons is located in the white matter of the spinal column. The ventral root joins with the dorsal root (posterior) root to form the entire spinal nerve.
The white matter, where the cell body is located is the 'computer' of the spinal nerve while the ventral root is the connections since it is composed of the axons of the neurons.
Each of the parts of the spinal column in general has a particular control to the different parts of the body. If there will be damage in the in a particular area in the spinal column, the consequence will be on the body parts where the connection is linked.
For example, when the ventral root of the spinal nerve is severed, the affected areas will be the peripheral muscles of a particular body area. It will not affect other body functions such as sensation which is controlled by the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves.
The ventral root generally controls the muscles and movements. If it is damaged, there will be weakness or paralysis in the muscles in the particular area of the body.