The parathyroid glands have very important roles and that is to regulate calcium levels in the body. This is so the nervous and muscular systems can functions properly. These glands are constantly monitoring the amounts of calcium that is in the blood. If calcium levels fall, they produce a hormone that is called parathyroid hormone (PTH). This hormone goes to the bones and takes some calcium out and places it in the blood. If the calcium levels in the blood are too high, it will not make any PTH.
Calcium is very important to the body. We need calcium to provide energy to the nervous system and muscular system. We also need calcium to keep our skeletal systems strong. As you can see, the parathyroid glands are necessary.
The parathyroid glands are actually not a part of the thyroid gland. They are near the thyroid gland in the neck.
The removal of the parathyroid gland is usually a complication of thyroid surgery. The condition is called hypoparathyroidism. Patients who either surgically or by mistake have their parathyroid glands removed, will have complications the rest of their lives. First, the patient will experience hypocalcemia due to a lack of calcium. The patient will need to take calcium supplements (at least 4 pills) to make up for their lack of calcium. Patients will also need to take Vitamin D or calcitrol to help their bodies absorb the higher amount of calcium. They will experience symptoms such as tremors, fatigue, anxiety, dry skin, and in a worse case scenario, paralysis of extremities. The hypocalcemia will also affect the patients bones and joints; and can even lead to an increase in heart conditions due to the heart not contracting properly. Patients will also need to visit an endocrinologist regularly for lab work. Unfortunately, even though symptoms can be managed with supplements and medications, patients with hypoparathyroidism will experience some type of complications the rest of their lives.
Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the body and its main function is to limit the amount of calcium intake into the blood and also the bones, so that the nervous and muscular system can work properly. If calcium levels drop significantly, they are activated to release hormones, which carries calcium with them, into the blood. Without them, there would be not enough calcium, and that would be disastrous as it helps to build stronger and denser bones, so no osteoporosis can affect us.