The ending of an essay or factual article is slightly more complicated than a simple phrase like, “In conclusion,…” “As we have seen…” etc. First, the thesis statement should be rephrased and restated. Second, if we think of an essay as a funnel, with all the arguments and evidence leading to a final, inevitable conclusion, then the last sentence of the essay should be an opening up to the next problem or discussion. Example: “Having shown that global warming does exist, we must now ask ourselves what can be done about it.” Or, “But, while the two-party system has been shown to oversimplify voters’ choices, the question remains how to give other political views a louder voice.” Notice how the thesis statement is rephrased and, at the same time, a continuing conversation is invited or challenged. This is the most sophisticated way to end a debate or essay—by suggesting that the conversation continue. “In conclusion” or “It has been shown…” etc. is relatively small-minded.