The city of Rome went through several major changes in its political role. The first major stages of its history are transmitted to us in the form of legends, that of the brothers Romulus and Remus who were suckled by wolves. Historically, after a period of domination by Etruscan kings, Rome became a Republic, controlled by Latin-speaking peoples. The Roman Republic was a somewhat unstable form of government prone to factional and class strife, and with administrative structure inadequate to running the empire it gradually acquired. With the triumvirates of 49-45 BC, and the emergence of Julius Caesar as a leading figure, the Republic gave way to an empire. With the founding of the eastern capital of Constantinople, the political division of west from east, and growing power of the east, led to what would eventually become the Byzantine Empire in the east and the fall of Rome and emergence of medieval Latin culture in the west. The other major change after 323, when Christianity became the official religion of the empire, was the growing importance church-state relations in politics.
The important social transformations after the conquests of the second century BC (Greece, Spain) led to a change of the structure of power, and to civil wars, ended by the Empire, called during my studies at the Sorbonne "State socialism".