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The basic answer to this is that the working conditions for factory workers and miners in this time were bad. At the start of the Industrial Revolution, workers were plentiful and the work did not require much skill. This meant that workers had very little leverage that would allow them to demand better wages and conditions from their employers. For example, workers in factories often worked as much as 16 hour days. Many children worked in the factories. Children from 13 to 18 were not allowed to work more than 12 hour days. This shows how much work these people were required to do. In addition, of course, the workers endured dangerous conditions in their workplaces. Overall, then, hours were long and conditions were bad.
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