Who created the three constitutions during the French revolution, and what were the main changes they initiated?
The First Constitution was drawn by the National Assembly, the former Third Estate. It created a constitutional monarchy, abolished the nobility as a class, and adopted the metric system. Religious freedom was granted to Jews and Protestants and the property of the Catholic church was nationalized. Only the economic upper half of adult males were entitled to vote for or serve in the National Assembly.
The Second Constitution resulted from the radical elements in the National Assembly which declared war on Austria with disastrous results. The threat of invasion led to Patriotic fervor which resulted in a Second Constitution and the Declaration of the Republic of France in September, 1792. The Assembly under the new constitution abolished the monarchy, declared universal male suffrage, and adopted the Revolutionary Calendar as an attempt to create an entirely new culture. Under the constitution, Louis was convicted of Treason and executed; and the Committee on Public Safety began its bloody work to prevent another revolution.
The third convention was written by the National Convention in 1795. It provided for the population to vote for electors who would then elect a five member council, the Directory. It fought a number of foreign wars in an attempt to end unemployment; however royalist insurrections ultimately brought it down and gave rise to the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte.