What were the things that King Louis XVI did during the French Revolution that led to his death?

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Initially, the French revolutionaries envisaged the establishment of a constitutional monarchy along the lines of the British model. However, Louis had been brought up to believe in the divine right of kings, that he had been appointed by God to rule over France. Prior to the Revolution, France was an absolutist state; the king exercised absolute power without any constitutional constraints. The system had lasted for so long that it came as a shock to many when it finally came crashing down in 1789.

After the Revolution, France became a nation in the modern sense. As with all nations, it was quickly established who did and didn't belong. Aristocrats certainly didn't because they were regarded as the exploiters of the old regime. The king, however, was a special case. It was widely believed that France needed a figurehead to provide some much-needed stability at a time of great political upheaval. Although initially Louis played along with his new, much-reduced role, in his heart he remained an absolute monarch, utterly devoted to the idea that he had been placed by God on the throne of France and was answerable to Him alone.

Many of the revolutionary leaders were suspicious of Louis, especially after a number of European monarchies declared war on the new regime. They believed that if Louis wasn't actively conspiring with hostile foreign governments, he soon would be. Their suspicions appeared to be confirmed when Louis tried to escape the country with his family on what became known as the Flight to Varennes. At the very least, this demonstrated that Louis wasn't committed to the new revolutionary settlement; at the worst, it appeared to confirm that he was a traitor to France. The latter view prevailed among the French political classes, and after a fractious debate in the National Convention, he was condemned to death.

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In a sense, it was what Louis XVI did not do, rather than what he did, that led to his death.

Louis was officially executed for treason.  But his trial was really not a legal trial but more of a political event.  As the link below says, the charges against him were "trivial or vague" and "not susceptible of legal proof."   Therefore we cannot really say that it was anything that he did that led to his conviction and death.

The one thing that Louis did that led to his arrest was to try to escape from France.  He did this because he could not tolerate the policies of the revolutionary government.  After the Revolution, Louis was still king, the head of a constitutional monarchy of sorts.  He made many compromises with the new form of government, but he could not tolerate the changes the government was making in the Roman Catholic Church.  He tried, therefore, to leave the country but was caught and imprisoned.

While he was imprisoned, a war started between France and Austria and Prussia.  The leader of the Austrian/Prussian army, a cousin of Louis, issued a statement saying that his side would restore the king if they won.  This was not something Louis himself did, but it helped lead to his death because it made him look like he was allied with the enemies of France.

Overall, Louis XVI was killed not because of what he did (try to escape) but because of what he did not do.  He did not completely accept the changes that the revolutionaries were trying to make.  Since many of them did not want a monarchy in the first place, this left him vulnerable and that is what really led to his death.

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