Marbury v. Madison (1803) had three short-term ramifications. The case is, of course, chiefly remembered for its one long-term ramification: the Supreme Court's power of judicial review.
First, William Marbury, a Federalist, did not receive the position he had been promised; in any case, his term would have been half over. He was supposed to take up a job in the District of Colombia as justice of the peace in 1801. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Supreme Court did not have the authority to force President Thomas Jefferson to deliver a letter of appointment to Marbury.
Second, the case was a result—and continuation—of the factious quarrels between the two political parties: the Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans. President John Adams was loath to accept defeat in the 1800 election, so he had attempted to appoint a last-minute slew of Federalist judges. Marshall, a Federalist, could have recused himself from Marbury v. Madison, but he did not.
Finally, Jefferson tried to counter Federalist power in the nation's judiciary. In 1804, two Federalist judges were impeached, and one—District Judge John Pickering—was removed from office. Justice Samuel Chase of the Supreme Court survived an impeachment vote, however.