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What were the negative effects of colonialism on India?

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When the British held colonial rule over India, the people of India suffered from a lack of autonomy, theft of their lands and resources, and oppressive treatment by the British and the small class of Indian elite under British control. The majority of Indians, who were not wealthy and did not hold political power, became workers for British profit. Thousands of Indian workers died in the 1840s building railroads for British profit, as resources were shipped via railroads to Indian ports, where they were shipped to Britain for factory production. Millions of Indians died in 1943, when the British created a widespread famine by forcing Indian farmers to convert their rice fields into jute fields in order for the British to send the jute to Britain for textile production. Over four million Indians died as a result of this action by the British. Many Western European and American narratives frame British colonialism as a positive event for India, which is just another aspect of white supremacist colonialism, in which the white colonist frames harmful colonial actions as beneficial to the colonized people. For example, many textbooks claim that British rule brought free press and democracy to India, failing to mention the deaths of millions of people and the widespread oppression that occurred.

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