What were the main differences between the Eastern and Western Roman Empires?  

Some main differences between the Eastern and Western Roman empires are that the main language of the Eastern Roman Empire was Greek, while the language of the Western Roman Empire was Latin, and that the Eastern Roman Empire was more cosmopolitan.

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The Roman Empire grew out of the city of Rome, which gradually expanded to include all of Italy. During the Punic Wars, Rome began to acquire an empire and gradually expanded north into Gaul and Britain and south into Spain and North Africa in the west. In the east, it acquired Greece and the other areas that had been conquered by Alexander the Great. Culturally, the various parts of the empire remained distinct. Although both eventually became Christianized, they had very different approaches to Christianity.

In the west, the main language was Latin and the main center of wealth and power was Rome itself. The west was surrounded by vibrant barbarian cultures which eventually mingled with Latin culture to form what became Europe. The west tended to rely on barbarians for its military and various Gothic tribes eventually invaded and conquered Rome itself, with the western Roman Empire falling in 476. The decline of the western empire meant that the main functioning central authority became...

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