What were the economic and political similarities between Britain and the colonies?
This question is complex, but I will try to give some political elements here.
First, there were two major types of British colonies. They could be either economic colonies or settlement colonies. In the first case (as in India, for example), the British Crown exploited the resources of the colony and appointed governors to govern strictly according to the metropolis. In the second, people from Britain moved to new land, mainly because of religious and political dissent, to create British settlements. This is the case of the American colonies after the arrival of the first Puritans in the 1620s.
The thirteen American colonies started as economic colonies exploited by private companies under British license. But the arrival of many colonists forced Britain to change its politics toward the American colonies.
Thus, for the thirteen colonies, Britain wanted to mirror its own political system with bicameral organization. Each colony reproduced the model in which the king represents the executive power, the upper House acts as his advisor and the legislative power is in the hand of the House of Commons, the lower house.
First, each colony had a governor whose status depended on the colony. They could be appointed by the king or elected with more or less limited power, checked by an assembly. Then, there was an upper house, called a council, functioning as an advisory board for the governor. And finally, mirroring the British House of Commons, there was a lower house or assembly in which elected members held legislative power.
This reproduction caused troubles, and British political problems were thus reflected in the colonies.
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