What were the developments in the fields of music and dance, food, and clothing during the Sultanate period?

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The Sultanate Period was marked by the Turks moving into India during the thirteenth century. Indian music became intermingled with Persian and Arabic music. The Turks brought new musical instruments into the area, including the rabab and sarangi. The purpose of music shifted from religious purposes to entertainment purposes. Some Muslim rulers were believed to have brought professional dancers into their court. During the Sultanate period, the use of spices for seasoning became much more commonplace. Food from Central Asia became commonplace. Olive oil was replaced by ghee. Sakba, a dish comprising of various kinds of meats, became popular. This period showed an increase in the use of tailored garments. Robes and gowns were made of extravagant materials. Gold and silver embroidery was used to create ornamental garments. The Sultanate Period was also recognized for its cultural developments.

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One of the most important advances during the time period was the emergence of a blending of Indian and Muslim styles into something that would become distinctive of the subcontinent.  This development is something that can be examined in greater detail here.  The time period was marked by a hunger of incorporating new ideas into existing ones, and this synergy came to result in some fairly significant achievements.  The building of the Taj Mahal's dome was constructed with this style of fusion between Indian and Muslim influences as highly evident, as well as the elaborate use of calligraphy in borders of buildings while India started to borrow from Persian influences.  It seems that the fuller understanding of "traditional" Indian ideas that we now come to see as part of the national fabric emerged in this time period.

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