What were the changing social conditions Native Americans and African Americans experienced across time in American history from the 1800s to today?

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In the early 1800s, millions of black people were enslaved and indigenous people of this land were experiencing constant massacres, land theft, and cultural oppression. In the mid 1830s, president Andrew Jackson enacted the genocidal Indian Removal Act that led to the forced displacement and deaths of thousands of indigenous people from their homelands East of the Mississippi River. As "manifest destiny" grew as a concept amongst white settlers and US military aggression in the West and Southwest against Mexico continued, westward expansion led to the further genocide and forced displacement of indigenous peoples.

By the mid 1800s, enslaved black people had been rebelling for over two centuries against their enslavement, and the growing abolitionist movement within enslaved and non-enslaved communities were growing stronger and stronger. Throughout the 1850s, ex-slave Harriet Tubman freed thousands of slaves as she executed brilliant raids of plantations and attacks against plantation owners. After the Civil War, black folks experienced a decade of freedom in which millions of acres were reclaimed from former plantation owners, schools were built, and autonomous black communities were created. However, this decade of reclamation and freedom came to a horrific end as vigilante white supremacists and the white supremacist government regained control and Jim Crow laws spread across the country and prisons were built to imprison formerly enslaved black people.

During this time period, indigenous people were facing the creation of reservations and Indian boarding schools. The reservations were pieces of undesirable land that the government forced indigenous people to live on if they wanted to continue living according to their indigenous customs. These reservations were essentially ghettos where indigenous people suffered tremendously, and continue to do so to this day, in exchange for continuing to live as best as they can in accordance to their ways prior to European colonization. The state created Indian boarding schools to rip indigenous children away from their families and force them to assimilate into white culture. These boarding schools were rife with all kinds of abuse and oppression.

By the mid 20th century, the Civil Rights movement was born and black people began rebelling in mass against widespread vigilante and systemic racism. By the 1960s, the Black Power movement and the American Indian Movement was in full swing. Both groups participated in varying occupations, protests, and uprisings against the American government. Both groups were able to gain concessions from the US government, such as the Civil Rights Act and the end to boarding schools, as a result of their movements, as well as a renewed sense of pride in their cultures. However, the government continued to oppress both groups of people.

This oppression continues to this day as black people and indigenous people are killed by police more per population than any other group of people. Reservations are still places of oppression where governments and corporations consistently strip resources from indigenous territories. On the other hand, movements such as the Movement for Black Lives and the No DAPL movement prove that black folks and indigenous peoples are continuing to fight back against state, corporate, and vigilante oppression.

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