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The most important technological advances were those that were related to railroads and perhaps agriculture. These were the advances that made the industrialization of the post-Civil War period possible.
Agriculturally, there were inventions like James Oliver's chilled-iron "sodbuster" plow which was able to cultivate the Great Plains and open up a new "breadbasket" for the US. Other inventions and advances were made in things like threshing machines that allowed faster harvest of grain.
Closely related to these advances were advances in railroad-related technologies. These advances allowed railroads to spread across the country, bringing things like the agricultural products from the Great Plains back to urban centers. These included things like the Bessemer Process that made cheaper steel for better rails, the refrigerator car for trains, and improvements on telegraph systems.
All of these advances allowed railroads to become the "first big business" and the most important industry of the post-Civil War era.
The most importent technological advances where the railroads and riverine transporations. This technological gave them the chance to supply large armies and move large troops quickly.
Medicine was also a importente technological adcancement, chloroform was then invented.
Guns and equipment were also advanced technologicaly, the submarine, the flame thrower, land mines, grenades andobservations ballons were some advances that would help the armies.
The railroad was for me the most importent advances and eveen today we use this transportation.
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