The French Revolution is often referred to as a watershed event because it had a profound effect on France, as well as other European countries.
Because of the financial excesses of King Louis XV, great-grandson of Louis XIV, France declined. Louis XV lost nearly all of the colonies in America to England, and he lost India. After he realized that he had been a weak leader and had contributed to the loss of royal authority, King Louis XV declared, "Apres-moi, le deluge." ("After me, there comes the flood.") Upon his death, his grandson became Louis XVI. He, too, was a weak king who did not know how to resolve the fiscal problems of his country. As a result, taxes were increased. However, the Third Estate, composed of everyone but the nobility and the clergy, were the only group taxed because the First and Second Estate refused to be taxed. On July 14, 1789, realizing their numbers, members of the Third Estate revolted against their oppressors and stormed the Bastille, which was a symbol of the absolutism and the arbitrary power of the monarchy.
The Declaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen (Declaration of the rights of men and citizens) was drawn up. It declared that all men were free and equal under the law. All citizens were entitled to liberty and the free expression of thought, and all citizens had freedom of speech. The monarchy was done away with, so now the real power lay in the National Assembly. This Assembly limited the power of the Church and transformed the administrative system of France by dividing it into departments.
As France moved toward becoming a democratic society, other countries worried that this new revolutionary spirit would spread. Consequently, the neighboring countries of Austria and Prussia issued the Declaration of Pillnitz, which demanded that the French return Louis XVI to the throne. The new leaders of France interpreted the declaration as hostile and declared war on Austria and Prussia. When this war did not go well for the French, the people became discontent with the rule of the Girondins, a moderate faction. The Jacobins, led by Maximilien Robespierre, took control. At first, it seemed that the newly created Committee of Public Safety would stabilize the economy. However, Robespierre became paranoid. Fearing counterrevolutionary influences, Robespierre began what has been called the Reign of Terror, in which he had more than 15,000 people executed.
Robespierre was himself executed in 1794 after the removal of foreign invaders and the stabilization of the economy. Soon, a more modern government was formed. In 1795, the Directory, a system of five members, was established. This system lasted until near the end of 1799; at this point Napoleon Bonaparte organized a coup d'etat and declared himself First Counsel, taking all the executive and legislative powers of the Directory.
Napoleon brought order to France as he established a centralized government. He codified the French laws under the Napoleonic Code, a code which still forms the foundation of civil law today. He reestablished relations with the Pope after France was rejected by the Church following the revolution. He brought about reforms in banking. He established an organized educational system in which students in each grade learned standardized concepts throughout the country. Militarily, Napoleon led many successful campaigns. During one, the Rosetta Stone was discovered. (It was this artifact which provided the key to cracking the code of Egyptian hieroglyphics.)
Unfortunately, like many rulers, Napoleon became consumed by power and sought to form a vast empire. While he was successful at conquering many countries, he failed in his invasion of Russia and its brutal winter. In 1814, following several other losses, Napoleon abdicated the throne and was exiled to the island of Elba. However, Napoleon escaped and returned to France, where he was welcomed by many. He began his One Hundred Days campaign, but he was defeated at Waterloo.