What were the social impacts of colonization on the African continent?

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In the late 19th century, Europeans attempted to justify their colonial conquests in Africa by defining their objectives as Christianity, commerce, and civilization (the "three C formula"). In practice, the coming of colonial administrations typically meant the end of slavery and the slave trade (with the exception of the horrible genocidal system of King Leopold II’s Congo Free State), a decline in the influence of tribal elites, and in some places, the building of some basic modern infrastructure, such as roads, telegraph lines, and railroads. In a few places that were deemed appropriate for European colonization, such as parts of East Africa (e.g., contemporary Kenya), white farmers established settlements using cheap local African labor.

With the exception of a few colonies, such as the Gold Coast (Ghana) and South Africa, the colonial rulers made little effort to industrialize the African societies that they were colonizing. On the contrary, they usually sought to develop the...

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