What were the similarities and differences between the Mongol empire and the Islamic empire?

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The Islamic empire and the Mongol empire emerged as a result of prolonged and bloody military campaigns in many countries extending over a number of different regions. The Islamic empire made conquests from Spain in the West, to Central Asia in the East. The Mongol empire attacked many countries from Poland to Hungary in the West, to Korea and Japan in the East.

Both empires were relatively tolerant of other faiths, but Mongol empire was more pluralistic in regard to religion. The Islamic empire discriminated against non-Muslims while at the same time protected Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians to some degree. Both empires were commercially oriented, albeit to varying degrees. The Mongols made a point of offering safety and security to foreign merchants to encourage their participation in international trade, which was very profitable to all parties.

Both empires stimulated cultural contacts and the exchange of knowledge and technology among various regions and civilizations. Paper, for...

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