What were the root causes (main causes) of England's transformation from Absolute Monarch to Republic?Please include something having to do with Henry 8th and Oliver Cromwell.
Be undetained. Henry VIII (1491-1547) and Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) were obviously not contemporaries, but their lives's work overlap in the cause of religion and absolute versus representative government.
By Henry breaking away from the Roman Church in 1535, he established himself as the head of the Anglican Church. Although Henry was not an Absolute Monarch (he still had to get permission from Parliament for some of his activities) he did consolidate political and religious power by breaking from Rome and England began its long descent into religious turmoil.
By the time Charles I became king in 1625, he believed that he possessed the Divine Right of Kingship, and acted accordingly. Because of his perceived abuses of governance, in 1628, Cromwell and others in Parliament passed the Petition of Right, which sought to limit the king's power. The king responded by dissolving Parliament, acting more like an Absolute Monarch, and forbade Parliament to assemble.
For 11 years between 1629-1640, Parliament was silenced. By 1640 the political struggle between king and Parliament escalated, and erupted into a civil war by 1642. The culmination of the war brought about the English Commonwealth in 1649. By 1659, however, the monarchy was restored with Charles II, but it was no longer Absolutist; the king had to reckon with Parliament.
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