What were the political results of World War I?

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This depends on what you would call a "political result" and the time frame that you are asking about.

In the very short term, WWI had two major political results.  It resulted in the fall of the monarchies of Russia and Germany.  Russia's monarchy fell during the war and was replaced by the communist government of the Soviet Union.  Germany's monarchy fell after the war was lost and was replaced by a democracy.  A lesser political result  (from the European/American point of view) was the demise of the Ottoman Empire and the creation of the republic of Turkey.

In the longer term, the major political result of was the rise of Nazism and fascism.  The chaos of the post-war world helped to cause people in Germany and Italy, for example, to embrace fascism.  Their embrace of this form of government helped to lead to WWII.

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