The biggest political consequence of World War I in Russia was the Russian Revolution, which in turn led to the Bolshevik Revolution, the Russian Civil War, and the establishment of the Soviet Union. This was in part a consequence of the social and economic hardships faced by the Russian people as a result of the war. The Russian people, including many in the army and among the nobility, blamed the Tsar for the enormous losses suffered during the conflict. They also held him responsible for food and fuel shortages that occurred during the war as well, and this is what led to the Petrograd riots that led to his abdication. After he was replaced by a provisional government, Russia still remained in the war, which became a major issue empowering the radical Bolsheviks. Anxious to get Russia out of the conflict, Germany facilitated the transport of Vladmir Lenin into Russia in 1917, and, promising "peace, land, and bread," he led the Bolshevik Revolution late in that year.