Alexander III of Macedon (356 BC – 323 BC), usually called Alexander the Great, was the son of Phillip II of Macedon and succeeded his father on the Macedonian throne in 336 BC after eliminating rival claimants to the throne.
King Philip, with the help of his son Alexander who was a precociously skilled military commander, expanded Macedonia from a small barbarian kingdom to the north of Greece by conquest. Greece had consisted of many warring city states and Philip presented himself not just as a conqueror but also a savior and unifier of Greece and a legitimate Hellenic king. Alexander was educated by Aristotle as a young man and thus firmly embedded in a cosmopolitan Greek cultural milieu.
After Philip's death, many Greek cites rebelled but Alexander quickly subdued them, and then continued a dramatic series of military conquests, including south to Egypt and east through Persia and Mesopotamia, and even to India. In the wake of his conquests, Greek cities were planted in many of...
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