The Second Vatican Council, in many ways. can be seen as an outcome of the Reformation as it was originally intended, a series of sweeping reforms to many aspects of church life and to the Catholic hierarchy. First, although it did not overturn Papal Infallibility, it represents a step back from the ultramontanist of Vatican I and a restoration of local episcopal power. Next, it enacted major liturgical reform, including Mass and Bible reading in the vernacular. Finally, it represents a liberalizing of the neo-Thomist and anti-modernism orthodoxies of Vatican I and its aftermath, allowing for use of the historical-critical method and philologically rather than dogmatically grounded approaches to church history.