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In Federalist 45, Madison’s basic argument is that the new federal government that the Constitution is creating will not be a danger to the rights of the people. He argues here that the Constitution does not actually enlarge the power of the federal government in any way that is both important and controversial. Instead, he says, the federal government will remain less powerful than the state governments. It will employ fewer people. It will have only a few enumerated powers while the rest of the powers will be retained by the states. For these reasons, Madison argues, the new federal government will not be a danger to the people. Therefore, Madison says, the Constitution should be ratified.
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