An obvious difference would be the difference in time. The Russian Revolution occurred more than a century after the Revolution in France, which was part of an "Age of Revolutions" that included the American and the Haitian Revolutions. Another would be that the first wave of the French Revolution attempted to establish a constitutional monarchy. Tsar Nicholas abdicated during the first wave of the Russian Revolution, unless we consider, as some do, the 1905 revolution as the first wave. While there were extremely radical elements in the French Revolution, the fact that the Russian Revolution culminated with the rise to power of the communist Bolsheviks made it unique in history. Another major difference is that the Russian Revolution (or at least its Bolshevik phase) led to a long and bloody civil war in Russia. No such civil war occurred in France, though the revolutionaries spilled massive quantities of blood in repressing opposition, most notably in the Vendée revolt, which flared up repeatedly, but did not, as in Russia, engulf the entire nation.
I have no idea if I understand this well enough to answer this question, but here is my two shekels, which may be more of a list of similarities rather than differences.
1) One happened in France. One happened in Russia.
2) One tried to apply Voltaire and Rousseau. The other tried to apply Marx.
3) One happened in eighteenth century. The other happened in in twentieth century.
4) One overthrew Louis XVI. The other overthrew Nicholas II.
5) One resulted from a shortage of wheat. The other resulted from a shortage of potatoes
6) Napoleon gained control France. Stalin gained control Russia.
7) Napolean gained control of Western Europe. Stalin gained contol of Eastern Europe.
8) French historians consider Napolean a hero. Russian historians consider Stalin a villain.
9) Historians think of the French Revolution as the transition between the Enlightenment Era and the Romantic Era. I don't believe anyone marks the Russian Revolution as a similar change.
10) The French Revolution resulted in mass murder in France. The Russian Revolution resutled in mass murder in Cambodia, Cuba, China, North Korea, Russia, and Ukraine.
11) The French Revolution spread ideas of liberty and equality around the world. The Russian Revolution spead ideas off tyranny and equalily around the world
- The French turned into a democracy after the revolution while the Russians turned communist.
- The Russians also had a pre-revolution that led up to the full revolution, while the French did not.
- The French revolution lasted ten years, between the years of 1789 and 1799.
- he Russian revolution lasted a much smaller time frame and consisted of several small scale revolutions.
- The French wanted to abolish their previous totalitarian regime so that they would all have the opportunity to live and get rich in a capitalist democratic 'free' state.
- The Russians wanted to abolish their previous totalitarian regime so that they would all have the necessities of life and live equally without the need to acquire material wealth as happiness.
- Where it took place