There were two major tenets of absolutism.
First, there was the idea that the monarch had absolute sovereignty over the land. This meant that the monarch was not answerable to anyone. There was no constitution that prevented monarchs from doing what they wanted and there was no need for them to share power with a parliament unless they chose to do so. That meant that the monarch had the power to come up with and execute all policies in whatever way he or she wanted to.
Second, there was the idea that the monarchs held this power through divine right. This meant that God had given the monarchs the right to rule. This was why the monarchs did not need to answer to anyone on Earth.
The tenets of it was that the monarch was sovereign, and that is about all, in theory. But in practice, Wikipedia puts it well: "In theory, the absolute monarch exercises total power over the land and its subject peoples, yet in practice the monarchy is counter-balanced by political groups from among the social classes and castes of the realm: the aristocracy, clergy (see caesaropapism), bourgeoise, and proletarians." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_mo… Absolutism never succeed anywhere for long. It began to loose a lot of steam when the "the aristocracy, clergy (see caesaropapism), bourgeoise, and proletarians" forced it upon King John. "The Magna Carta, or Great Charter, is a document created for the purpose of limiting the powers of the monarch and preserving the basic legal rights of all free men in England. It was made after a rebellion in 1215 against King John of England, a corrupt, absolute monarch who angered all those under the influence of his power." http://library.thinkquest.org/20176/mcar…