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In what ways might Daoism and Buddhism be seen as responses to Confucianism?

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It would be difficult to view any of these three philosophies as a response to one another, as they all date from about the same period.  Confucius is generally considered to have been born in 551 BC, Lao-T'zu probably about 604 BC, and Siddhartha Gautama in 546 BC.  They came from different areas, the first two from different parts of China and Gautama from Nepal.

Confucianism is a philosophy of ethics and morals within society, stressing ritual and duty to the family, community and nation/state, where Taosim is a philosophy of individual "right living."  Buddhism is more "religious" in some aspects than the other two, but careful reading of the Dhamapada or Teachings of the Buddha reveals a rejection of religious hindu cosmology and a philosophy of individual moral thought and action.  None are truly religious philosophies, but are concerned with ethical behavior for the positive benefits to the individual and society.

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