In what ways did factories and industrialization change men’s and women’s roles in the United States.
Remember that many of the progressives who were active in the causes of immigrant rights, and working conditions in factories were women. Women from the middle class became more politically active in this time, an important precursor to women's voting rights that was taking place state by state in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
At the same time, millions of women were working sweatshop jobs, especially in the textile industries. Without this experience and change in gender roles, women would perhaps not have played so prominent a role in American industry during World War I, which was a major factor in securing passage of the 19th Amendment.
The most important impact that this had was to contribute to the idea that there were "separate spheres" for men and women. Industrialization helped bring about the idea that men should go out and work for money and that women should stay home, out of the public/economic sphere.
Before industrialization, the majority of households had men and women working together on farms. They did different work, but both were equally important in economic terms. Both produced things that were for home consumption and things that were sold for money. This meant that there was much less of an idea that women and men should occupy separate spheres in life.
With industrialization came the idea of separate spheres. Women no longer did work that was economically important (in any obvious ways) to their families. This helped bring about the idea that women were not fit to function in the world outside the home, the world in which money was made. This attitude has remained with us until relatively recent times (and you can argue it is somewhat present even today).