The “Watergate scandal” is a nickname applied to the detection, prosecution, and conviction of Republican Party officials, senior White House staff, and Cabinet heads for illegally obtaining information about their political opponents and trying to cover up the crimes. The immediately related events spanned two years, from June 1972, when burglars targeted the offices of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate complex in Washington, DC, through August 1974, when President Richard M. Nixon resigned from office. Not only was he the only president who ever resigned, but in succeeding him, Gerald Ford became the first president never to have run for the office, as he had become vice-president after serving as Speaker of the House of Representatives. The lasting effects are still felt, and the legacy can be grouped into five main categories.
First, the outcome reaffirmed the continued importance of the separation and balance of powers, as the Executive branch was not able to dictate the workings of government and protect President Nixon.
A second important area is the attention paid to the process after it concluded. This includes an investigation into possible excesses of government surveillance and other information-gathering that would have violated individual rights.
In addition, the revelations of the investigation and the follow-up prompted a wide range of legal reforms, designed to ensure that such a situation event never recurred.
A fourth key legacy is the increasing importance of investigative journalism, including the elevated stature of such reports to celebrity status. More people probably know the names of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein than those of the government officials who went to prison, and know the title of their book more than its allusion to the earlier fictional expose of corruption, Robert Penn Warren’s All the King’s Men.
Today as well, the “gate” suffix is routinely applied to any political scandal, such as “Iran-Contragate” of the 1980s and the 2015 New England Patriots Deflategate.