Gandhi's purpose was to fight for the freedom of India from Great Britain using non-violence. He also wanted to advance the idea of satyagraha, or passive resistance, to help oppressed people. He also believed in peace and cooperation between people of different religions and advocated the fair treatment of untouchables in India. Born in India in 1869, He became converted to the idea of using non-violence to fight racial oppression when he lived in South Africa. In 1906, the government of Transvaal required Indian people to register, and, in response, Gandhi led an eight-year campaign of civil disobedience.
When he returned to India in 1914, he used methods of non-violence to protest Britain's attempt to quell dissent during World War I. In his widening campaign for Indian home rule, he stressed economic independence and the weaving of homespun cloth so that Indian people did not need to rely on imported British goods. He also used hunger strikes to call attention to the plight of the untouchables in India. In 1947, Great Britain granted independence to India and Pakistan, which were partitioned into two nations. Gandhi hoped for the union of Hindus, who were intended to live in India, and Muslims, who were intended to live in Pakistan, and was against partition. In 1948, he was shot and killed by a Hindu extremist who did not support Gandhi's hopes for peace and cooperation with Muslims.