The Treaty of Versailles was the culmination of the Paris peace negotiations between the Allied powers and Germany, signed on June 28, 1919--six months after the end of the fighting--and formally accepted on October 21, 1919 by the League of Nations. In the terms of the treaty, Germany was forced to admit that they had started the war and accepted responsibility for it. They were also forced to restrict the size of its military forces (100,000 army, 15,000 navy); give up certain lands that they had conquered (including Austria, most of Prussia, Alsace-Lorraine and demilitarization of the Rhineland), as well as all colonies; and pay what amounted to $31+ billion for damages. (Germany finally finished making payments in 2010.) German reaction was universally negative, claiming the treaty a "violation of honour," but since Germany was not allowed to participate, they were forced to accept the treaty's terms. Germany eventually violated many of the conditions, especially after Adolf Hitler came to power.