What was the original functions and contexts of the two sculptures Moschophoros and Kalbtragerin (calf-bearer)? Also describe their physical differences. Where was the archaic Moschophoros placed in ancient times, and what was its function? How does that differ from the place and function of the modern Kalbtragerin (calf-bearer), a contemporary artwork on display in a gallery?

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Moschophoros is an ancient Greek statue depicting a man who carries a calf around his shoulders. The original function of the statue, according to archaeologists, was a religious offering to the goddess Athena. The sculpture was excavated from the Parthenon, where the ancient Greeks would worship their deities and leave ritual sacrifices for them.

Kalbtragerin is a modern sculpture by Serbian artist Aleksandra Domanovic that references the ancient Moschophoros, but it has a few key distinctions. The sculpture replaces the man in the sculpture with a tall rectangular column. Two arms protrude from the column where the Moschophoros's arms would be, holding the calf's legs. The calf in the sculpture is nearly identical to the Greek version, sitting atop the column where the man's shoulders would be. According to the exhibition notes provided by the Bundeskunsthalle museum in Bonn, Domanovic has replaced the man in the statue with a rectangle to indicate the shift to science-based agricultural practices, particularly regarding industrial farming practices.

While the function of the ancient statue was a religious one, and while its function has morphed into an example of the both religion and art in antiquity, the modern sculpture is a social commentary on how far removed modern agriculture is from the human–animal connection depicted in the Greek sculpture.

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