what is/was the Spartan system?
This is a great question. The Spartans were an ancient Greek people group who lived in Sparta. Their way of life was called the agoge, which literally means "training." It dictated the Spartan way of life - intellectual, military, moral, and social. The constitution was called, "eunomia," which means good law.
The Spartan system had several components. First, they had two kings, and twenty eight elders, who would act as an advisory body and they set topics for discussion. They were elected for life. This body was called the gerousia.
The highest position was the position of Ephor. These five men were higher than even the kings and the elders. They had control of all the finances. They would also go on campaign with the kings.
The Spartans were able to have this society, because they enslaved a group of people called the helots, who would support their society.