Bacon's Rebellion was a shocking event that changed the tide of slavery in Virginia and nearby colonies, leading to much harsher environments for slaves. Nathaniel Bacon cobbled together a group of impoverished white supporters and African American slaves to rise up so that they could take over some Western land, mainly from the Native Americans who were in an uneasy alliance with the white settlers of the time. Bacon and his men rebelled against the Virginian government to try and end the treaty with the Native Americans so they could take their land.
When Bacon died unexpectedly, the uprising was immediately quelled. Unfortunately, without victory, the damage was done. The governor feared a similar uprising may take place again, and so he created harsher laws and punishments for slaves so that they would not be tempted to rise up under any circumstances, leading to very harsh conditions for them.
The significance of Bacon's Rebellion of 1676 was that it pushed the elite of Virginia towards a harsher, more rigid system of slavery. During the rebellion, Nathaniel Bacon, a recent immigrant from England who lived in the backcountry, wanted to lead an expedition against the Native Americans on the Virginia frontier to gain more land for poorer, restive whites, including former indentured servants. He also appealed to black people who wanted land, and he revolted against the elite governor, William Berkeley, who had prohibited western movement to keep the Native Americans peaceful. After mounting a rebellion that included poor whites and blacks, Bacon suddenly died. His rebellion was over, but the white elite in Virginia feared a similar revolt. As a result, they turned to an increasingly harsh slave system that imposed a rigid color line to co-opt poor whites into their system and prevent them from aligning with slaves.
It should be noted that Bacon and Berkeley were related and that although Berkeley accorded Bacon a position in the council, he did not allow him to make moves in his inner circle. Bacon managed to enlist the support of Virginians from all classes and races against Berkeley and the loyalists. Berkeley received support from Britain and English soldiers who arrived to address the rising rebellion led by Bacon.
The Bacon Rebellion is of great significance because it demonstrated the rising tensions between the colonists and the English-appointed administration. It is probably the first sign of trouble for British control over the colonists, and it played an important role in emboldening the colonists in preparation for the American Revolution. Bacon’s engagement with Berkeley was aimed at advancing self-interest, but the people supporting Bacon sought recognition and a change in the status quo.
Historians say that Bacon's Rebellion was important because it highlighted issues of class that existed in Virginia at the time. During this time, the government of the colony was dominated by an elite. The rest of the colony felt that the government (led by long-time governor William Berkeley) tended to favor the interests of that elite over those of the majority. Bacon was himself a member of the elite. However, he allied himself with the common people. When conflict arose between the classes due to Berkeley's policy towards Indians, , Bacon came to lead a rebellion that included both former indentured servants and poor people, both black and white. Therefore, this rebellion is seen as a significant sign of the conflict between classes in Virginia.