The most likely answer to this question is that Russia was called the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) during the time period from 1922 until 1991. However, this is not quite accurate as the USSR (also called the Soviet Union) encompassed more territory than is currently part of Russia.
In 1922, the USSR was officially created when the Bolsheviks won the Russian Civil War. Before that, Russia had been an empire ruled by a monarch. In 1917, the last monarch was overthrown and a new government came to power. Later that year, communists overthrew that government and a civil war ensued. The communists held the upper hand throughout the war and won it in 1922. At that point, they officially created the USSR.
Russia was the most important part of the USSR for all of its existence. Russia was the biggest and the most economically advanced part of the country. For this reason, we often use the terms “Russia” and “Soviet Union” interchangeably.
Technically, Russia was only one part of the Soviet Union. The USSR was made up a number of so-called republics. There was one called the Russian Soviet Federative Republic. Its territory was almost identical to the territory that is now part of Russia. Therefore, it would be more accurate to say that Russia was called the Russian Soviet Federative Republic between 1922 and 1991. However, most people have never heard of this entity and I imagine that your teacher is probably looking for “USSR” or “Soviet Union” as the answer to this question.