What was the role of the Reformation and the sacking of Constantinople [by the Ottomans] in shaping a new world order?
Wow, this answer could be a book, but I will try to give a short summary here. The effect of the Reformation was crucial in creating a New World Order. First, the Reformation broke the power of the Roman Catholic Church releasing people all over Europe from its domination allowing much more freedom of thought and the exchange of ideas. Secondly, the Reformation split Europe - before this all Europeans had followed the same religion - now each country basically chose its own religion, increasing national sentiment and unity. Before the Reformation people spoke of living in Christendom or in their local area, but after the Reformation people began to say they lived in England, or France etc... Thirdly, the Reformation had a focus on the choices and actions of the individual in his relationship with God finally giving value to the individual over in relation to society. This will later translate into the idea that "all men are created equal." Countries based on a Protestant foundation such as England were quicker to develop representational goverments with limitations on the power of monarchs than Catholic nations such as France which began to develop the concept of the divine right of rule.
The major effect of the sacking of Constantinople was that it broke the power of Byzantium and turned the eyes of Europe west for both expansion and trade routes, leading to the discovery of the Americas
The role of the Protestant Reformation played a huge impact in shaping a new wrold older. It limit the influence of the authority from the Roman Catholic Church from expanding towards the four corners of the world, and releasing people from its grip and power. It allows people to have their own say and a freedom to say what they want to say and not be controlled by a religious body. Man was now the creator of their destiny and not their own destiny being monopolized by the Church. They can accept different types of religion and not only Christanity, so they are not forced to accept only one religion, meaning they have a choice and not being wear down by the Church. Also, the church was too focursed on making money and not on the Word of God, so it was right to halt the spreading influence of the Church as it was not doing its part to spread God great values and lessons. People wanted more money so began the corruption amongst the people in the Church. To prevent this from happening, they have to "reform" or cleanse the church, and claw back the menancing claws of the Church from expanding throughout the whole of Europe. They need to act now before time runs out.
The sacking of the Constantinople by the Ottomans also shape a new world order. It marked the end of the Byzantine Empire, which reigned for a thousand years, and also speeded the fall of Christendom.