In Mary Shelly's Frankenstein, the author uses the following archetypal relationships to juxtapose Victor and the Monster:
Doppelganger: The Monster is a doppelganger, or ghostly twin, of Victor. He haunts his creator, vowing revenge against his family.
Foil: The Monster is a foil, or a reflection, of Victor. He is his master's dark side made flesh.
God/man (Adam): Victor is analogous to God, and the Monster is Man. Victor likewise abandons his creation.
Father/son: Victor is the father (more like a dead-beat dad). The Monster is a (abandoned, orphaned) son.
Protagonist/Antagonist: Victor is the story's main character, and the Monster is his primary adversary.
Ego/Id: Victor is the side which he reveals in public, but the Monster is the Id, the overgrown child with selfish desires, which he wishes to hide.
Avenged/avenger: First, the Monster is the Avenger and Victor the avenged. Then, both man and monster try to take revenge on each other in the land of ice.
Zeus/Prometheus: Victor is much like Zeus, who punishes Prometheus for giving fire to mankind. The Monster is like Prometheus, the god who is forever chained to a rock and tormented by his creator.
Here's a quote with shows several of the above relationships:
"'All men hate the wretched; how then, must I be hated, who am miserable beyond all living things! Yet you, my creator, detest and spurn me, thy creature, to whom thou art bound by ties only dissoluble by the annihilation of one of us.'" Chapter 10, pg. 83