In 1803, Britain and France under Napoleon re-ignited their hostilities, and American shipping became caught in their battles. Both Britain and France seized American merchant ships, and Britain forced over one thousand American sailors per year into the British Navy in a process called "impressment." In 1807, the British frigate the Leopard attempted to stop the American ship the Chesapeake so that the British ship could carry out a search. Instead, the American ship resisted, and the British killed three Americans and injured others in return.
As a result, Jefferson followed a policy of "peaceable coercion," designed to force Britain and France to cede to American demands through the Embargo Act of 1807. This act stopped the U.S. from exporting goods to Britain and France and other nations; Jefferson though Britain and France's reliance on American goods would force them to agree to his demands. Instead, Britain and France were able to acquire some of these goods from Latin America, and "peaceable coercion" was largely a failure. The act mainly hurt American producers, and it was very unpopular. Jefferson later replaced it with the Non-Intercourse Act, which allowed American manufacturers to export goods to all countries except Britain and France.