The Pax Romana (this means "Roman Peace") was a time from the reign of Caesar Augustus, which began in 27 BC, through the reign of Marcus Aurelius, which ended in 180 AD. During this 200 year period, the Roman Empire was quite peaceful. Since no other power was ever able to defeat Rome during this time, Romans could concentrate on economic and cultural pursuits. The security of the era, along with things like the good roads being built, meant that trade could flourish between various places in the empire, further helping the economy to grow.
In short, this was a time of peace and prosperity in the Roman Empire.
The Pax Romana (pax is Latin for peace) was a prolonged period of peace in the Roman Empire that lasted for more than two centuries, from about 27 B.C. until around A.D. 180. During this time no other empire or military power achieved victory against the Romans. Roman citizens were therefore able to concentrate on commerce, education, the arts, and literature. They borrowed many ideas from Greece, Egypt, and Asia Minor (present-day Turkey), lands they had conquered and made part of the Roman Empire during previous wars. In order to rule and protect the empire, Roman armies built a modern transportation system consisting of roads, aqueducts (structures that carry water over rivers or land), and tunnels. They raised the standard of living by expanding agriculture and trade. The Romans also developed a legal system that was used throughout the empire and later became a model for European and Latin American laws. The Pax Romana produced significant advances in the arts, particularly architecture, sculpture, and literature. New buildings in Greek architectural styles sprang up throughout the empire. Sculptures honoring famous Roman citizens adorned temples that were dedicated to such deities as Apollo (the Greek and Roman god of sunlight, prophecy, music, and poetry). Renowned poets Virgil (70–19 B.C.), Horace (65–8 B.C.), and Ovid (43 B.C.–A.D. 17) wrote verses about life, love, and the history of Rome. The greatest Roman prose writer, Livy (59 B.C.–A.D. 17), produced a history of Rome consisting of more than thirty-five volumes in which he described Roman leaders, customs, battles, and government.
Further Information: Daily Life in Ancient Rome.[Online] Available http://members.aol.com/Donnclass/Romelife.html, October 20, 2000; Halsall, Paul, ed. Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Rome. [Online] Available http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook09.html, October 20, 2000; McKeever, Susan. Ancient Rome.New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1995; Nardo, Don. Life in Ancient Rome. San Diego: Lucent, 1996; Nardo, Don. The Roman Empire. San Diego: Lucent, 1994.