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The Pax Romana (this means "Roman Peace") was a time from the reign of Caesar Augustus, which began in 27 BC, through the reign of Marcus Aurelius, which ended in 180 AD.  During this 200 year period, the Roman Empire was quite peaceful.  Since no other power was ever able to defeat Rome during this time, Romans could concentrate on economic and cultural pursuits.  The security of the era, along with things like the good roads being built, meant that trade could flourish between various places in the empire, further helping the economy to grow.

In short, this was a time of peace and prosperity in the Roman Empire.

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