What were Nietzsche's Apollonian and Dionysian principles about?
In Thus Spake Zarathrustra he uses the ancient Greek hierarchy of gods to illustrate what he saw as two sides of the human essence, roughly the reasoning, intelligent side that conduct life in a reasonable, ordered manner (Appollo ruled this aspect of Greek life, the side that we use to learn, to conduct business, etc.), and the emotional, feeling, sensuous side of human existence, the side that pays homage to song, dance, drunkenness, sex, and such libidinous activities (Dionysus, known in Roman myth as Bacchus, was thw ruler of wine, drama, dance.) In our modern world, for example, a college student goes to class to accumulate knowledge, to learn how to order and organize that knowledge into “ways of knowing,” and to begin life as a contributing, positive member; but, as everyone knows, college is also a “learning place” for excess, indulgence, experimenting with new lifestyles, etc. Nietzsche’s bifurcation makes understandable why these two divisions sometimes (always?) clash, but he also makes clear that both sides, both gods, must be acknowledged, even honored.