As the link from The New York Times below explains, the Native Americans who lived on Martha's Vineyard before the arrival of Europeans in the 1640s were from the Wampanoag tribe. Some lived near the Aquinnah Cliffs on the western part of the island (you can still see these red cliffs today). There, they subsisted by fishing and farming communally. Their deity, named Moshup, was thought to reside in the cliffs, as the article below explains, and was thought to catch whales and hoist them onshore for his people. There were about 3,000 native people at the time of the European arrival, and they lived in scattered settlements from Aquinnah in the west to Chappaquiddick in the east, as the article from Martha's Vineyard Magazine below explains.