The greatest political achievement of the neo-Babylonian Empire was urban planning. Nebuchadnezzar was the greatest king in the history of Mesopotamia. He built Babylon into the greatest city on Earth at the time. It was his goal to relive the greatness of Babylon that existed a thousand years earlier under Hammurabi. Under Nebuchadnezzar Babylon became a center of learning and science with a magnificent ziggurat and a paved main avenue. Nebuchadnezzar oversaw the building of gates and walls to protect the city. It is said that Nebuchadnezzar built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the Ishtar Gate served as the entrance to the city. Nebuchadnezzar utilized the resources of his kingdom to invest in a safe and prosperous capital city for his subjects.
Firm laws known as Hammurabi's code. This was the first time in history that laws for citizens were written down. They were recorded on stone tablets. Hammurabi's code consisted of nearly 300 laws to be used in different situations in everyday life. It was meant as a gudieline for the citizens of Babylon.
The neo-Babylonian Empire occurred after the Assyrian Empire and over a thousand years after Hammurabi.