The period from 1400 to 1500 A.D. in Europe is referred to as the Renaissance or early modern period. Economically, it was marked by a growth in prosperity due to many factors including the end of the devastation of the Black Death. There was a shift from medieval systems of feudal land ownership and modes of production to a rise of trade and the bourgeois class. Exploration, including the discovery by Europeans of the Americas, and expansion of both land and sea trade routes to the Orient, resulted in substantial production of wealth. There was also a tendency towards secularization in many areas and many developments in science and religion.