The Assyrians were among the great empires of the Ancient World which, at its height, controlled a region stretching across Mesopotamia, and reaching further west into Egypt. This was among the oldest of the great Empires, preceding the neo-Babylonian revival, which would in turn be conquered by Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Empire. In this alone, the Assyrians have great historical significance.
In addition to their conquests, the Assyrians also rank among the great city-builders of the Ancient World. Furthermore, there are historical arguments that the fabled Hanging Gardens of Babylon, among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, may have actually been located in Assyrian Nineveh, rather than in Babylon. This should hopefully give some idea as to the tremendous splendor possessed by this Assyrian city.