The Articles of Confederation
were, for the most part, ineffective in dealing with major national threats and issues of the time. Without the power to tax, they could not raise the revenue necessary pay our $4 million Revolutionary War debt, nor could they raise an Army or build a Navy with which to protect the frontier or American shipping. It toook a supermajority of 9/13 to pass a national law, which happened rarely, and a unanimous 13/13 to adopt an amendment and change the Articles themselves, which was really its fatal flaw.
All of that being said, the central government under the Articles of Confederation did pass important legislation like the Land Ordinance of 1785, which created a public school system financed by the sale of public land and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 which, among other things, prohibited slavery in the Ohio Country. Government under the Articles also successfully negotiated the Treaty of Paris ending the Revolutionary War in 1783.
Shays' Rebellion was really the last straw, as some farmers in western Massachusetts showed how truly weak the government was when it could not effectively respond to their riots and protests.