What was the division of labor, division of power, gender roles, and class structure of the Mohenjo-Daro?

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bohemianteacher4u | College Teacher | (Level 3) Assistant Educator

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Mohenjo Daro was a city built in the Indus Valley.  The city’s name in English means “Mound of the Dead.” Careful thought went into the design of the city, which was built by applying a square grid pattern.   The city was densely populated.  Bricks that were dried in a kiln were used to build the walls and homes in the city. The prosperity of the city was enhanced by its location along the Indus River, which served as a water supply. The city had running water flowing into it from the river.  The river also supported transportation and the exchange of goods.  Despite Mohenjo Daro's establishment as a well-organized city, the city held dwellings for people to live within but did not have palaces.  Because of the careful planning of the city, it is believed that they had a centralized government that assigned labor tasks.  The structure of the buildings indicate that there was a class division, including an elite, a middle, and lower class group. 

"The city was made up of powerful clans who shared the same ideology," (Lawler, 2013).

Similar to the government of the Harrapa, the city was controlled by priests who held high power. The priests led the people to believe that they alone could serve as intermediaries between the gods and the people.  The religious worship symbols that were found on the site appear to show that the people practiced a fertility cult.  The people of Mohenjo Daro were divided by their labor skills.  Some were farmers, craftsmen, and merchants.  An individual's level in society was dictated by their crafts and skills.  Women were active in farming and in raising and producing children.

The city of Mohenjo Daro was excavated and remains a mystery because no one is certain what destroyed the civilization. The remaining structures did not divulge many clues or artifacts that identified the direct system of government, etc.  Evidence exists that the city had a communal bathhouse, a citadel, and skilled artisians.  Most information, compares the surrounding civilizations in relation to the roles of class structure and gender roles.

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