Andrew Jackson's war with the Second Bank of the United States: Jackson viewed the B.U.S. as an institution that empowered the few against the many, and as a concentration of power that could not help but become corrupt. Jackson's veto message (to veto the act to recharter the B.U.S.) was a strong statement of democratic philosophy. Here is part of that message:
It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. Distinctions in society will always exist under every just government. Equality of talents, of education, or of weath can not be produced by human institutions. In the full enjoyment of the gifts of Heaven and the fruits of superior industry, economy, and virtue, every man is equally entitled to protection by law; but when the laws undertake to add to these natural and just advantages artificial distinctions, to grant titles, gratuities, and exclusive privileges, to make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society--the farmers, mechanics, and laborers--who have neither the time nor the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of their Government. There are no necessary evils in government. Its evils exist only in its abuses. If it would confine itself to equal protection, and, as Heaven does its rains, shower its favors alike on the high and the low, the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing. In the act before me there seems to be a wide and unnecessary departure from these just prindiples. (See Daniel Feller, The Jacksonian Promise (1995), p. 169-174.)
Jackson believed that government policies (the B.U.S. was chartered by the U.S. Government) should not harm the chances of the common man in order to benefit the privileged men.
At that time, the U.S. was being developed really fast. A lot of people in the Democratic Party (of which Jackson was a member) wanted access to capital so as to finance new plantations and factories and other enterprises; but, through the B.U.S., most access to most capital was controlled by men who were already rich. By destroying the B.U.S. and placing its deposits of money in the state banks, Jackson was making capital available to a lot more people (from Charles M. Wiltse, The New Nation, 1800-1845 , p. 142-146).
See also Harry L. Watson, Liberty and Power (1990), p. 138-159.