ISO is the acronym for 'International Standards Organisation. ISO is engaged in the work of preparing and popularising international standards for products, practices, and organisations. ISO by itself does not certify any product, process or organization but other organizations recognized by ISO do certify these as being compliant with relevant ISO standard.
Two most popular ISO standards for which certification are awarded by certifying agencies are ISO 9000 and ISO 14000. ISO 9000 relates to capability of organisations to meet specified customer quality requirements in products and services supplied. ISO 14000 relates to an organizations adherence to standards and practices intended to protect and preserve environment.
The term certification refers mostly to management standards from ISO 9000 to 50000 - each referring to a different industry or field of interest.
ISO 9000 refers to the international consensus on good quality management practices.
There are other quality management standards but are specific to certain industries such as ISO 13485 which is for Medical Devices, ISO/TS 16949 which is for the Automobile Indistry, AS9100 which is for the Aerospace Industry, ISO/IEC 17025 which is for testing and calibration laboratories producing testing and calibration results.
The ISO 14000 series refers to the requirements for an environmental management system.
ISO/IEC 20000 specifies requirements for the service provider to plan, establish, implement, operate, monitor, review, maintain and improve an Service Management System.
ISO 22000:2005 specifies the requirements for a food safety management system.
The ISO/IEC 27000 series specifies the requirements and guidelines for establishing, implementing, operating, monitoring, reviewing, maintaining and improving a documented Information Security Management System.
ISO 28000 specifies the requirements for a security management system, including those aspects critical to security assurance of the supply chain.
ISO 30000 specifies requirements for a management system to enable a ship recycling facility to develop and implement procedures, policies and objectives in order to be able to undertake safe and environmentally sound ship recycling operations in accordance with national and international standards.
ISO 50001 specifies requirements for establishing, implementing, maintaining and improving an energy management system, whose purpose is to enable an organization to follow a systematic approach in achieving continual improvement of energy performance, including energy efficiency, energy use and consumption.
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