Several universal themes are present in "Metamorphosis." First would be alienation: Gregor hates his work and does it only to support his family. He does not feel connected to it; it does not provide meaning to his life. He turns into an insect because he has the self-worth of an insect. He lacks pride and a sense of dignity. A second universal theme involves family relationships, especially the relationship between a father and son. One reason Gregor lacks self worth is that his family takes advantage of him, especially his father, who wants nothing to do with him. In fact, once Gregor is out of the way, the father returns to work, and when Gregor dies, the family becomes united again.